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Their origins as polytheists from outside the Catholic world, the vast scale of the European territories they ruled, and the richness of their royal courts — combining elements of East and West — all served to make the Jagiellonians unique among the dynasties of their epoch.
In , the Lithuanian grand duke Jogaila rode to Cracow to marry the Polish queen-heiress Jadwiga, accept Christian baptism, and provide the Poles with a king.
The rise of the Jagiellonians — the Catholic royal house named afer Jogaila — was swift. At its peak, circa , it ruled territories stretching from the Baltic to the Adriatic, from Silesia to the Eurasian steppe.
The family produced nine kings, two royal crusaders, a cardinal and a saint. Throughout its two-hundred year history, this was a dynasty steeped in many cultures.
Its daughters married princes from Germany, Austria and Sweden; Jagiellonian kings married royal women from France, Italy and Moscow.
Jagiellonian courts and capitals were places of Italian Renaissance style and learning, Orthodox painting, and Late Gothic arts. The legacies of the Jagiellonians across Central Europe were considerable.
Memory of the Jagiellonian era has shaped debates about national and regional identity in Central Europe, from the sixteenth century to the present day.
In the book On the Ancient Origins of the Poles its author, Justus Decius, who served as an adviser and secretary to the Polish king Sigismund I the Old, describes the earliest history of Poland and the kings from the Jagiellonian dynasty.
The text is composed of three parts: On the Origins of the Poles , On the Jagiellonian Dynasty and On the Times of King Sigismund , with the latter being especially important as the author lived through the period he was describing and saw many events of that time with his own eyes.
The Chronicle, published in in Cracow by Hieronymus Vietor, include some detailed woodcut illustrations depicting people, events and symbols of that period.
The title page is decorated with woodcuts showing a battle scene with the Tatar soldiers at the top and the Sigismund Eagle in the bottom half.
On the Ancient Origins of the Poles also comprises a genealogical tree designed by Decjusz with 87 members of five generations of the Jagiellonian family, starting with their progenitor Algirdas seen in the left corner of the woodcut.
They are presented singly or in groups, in various poses, with swords princes and military leaders , praying e.
Saint Casimir Jagiellon , speaking and gesticulating Cardinal Frederick Jagiellon. The women are wearing elegant Renaissance dresses, and their hair is adorned with a crown, cap or hat, confined in a net, as then dictated by fashion, or flowing down their back.
The representation of Sigismund I the Old third row, third from the left is a copy of a larger portrait of the king, also included in the Chronicle.
Apart from his image, we can find here a woodcut of Sigismund II Augustus as a baby with a parrot and young queen Bona holding a book. Author: Decius, Justus Ludovicus Title: Contenta De Vetvstatibvs Polonorvm Liber I.
De Iagiellonvm Familia Liber II. De Sigismundi Regis Temporibvs Liber III Published: Cracow: Hieronymus Vietor, XII Physical description: , LII [i.
Biblioteka Fundacyi W. Regum Poloniae Icones is a series of copperplate engravings of Polish kings created in Rome in by Thomas Treter , a canon, royal secretary, poet, philologist specializing in the poetry of Horace, painter and engraver.
He studied in Rome and spent there 25 years. After his return to Poland, he was appointed a canon of Frombork in , then a prelate and custodian.
The edition of Regum Poloniae Icones held in the Ossolineum collection is believed to be printed in the second half of the 17 th century in Stockholm or Uppsala.
The copper engravings were coloured with watercolours probably at the turn of the 19 th to the 20 th century. The edition includes an engraved title page with a title, author, place and date of publication and 44 portraits of Polish rulers from Lech, the legendary founder of the Polish nation, to Sigismund III Vasa 23 bust-length portraits, 19 half-length portraits, two full-length portraits.
In his work,Treter was inspired by the iconographic representations of Polish kings taken from stamps, funeral sculptures, engravings and paintings.
Icones regumPoloniae served as a model for Principum et regum Poloniae Imagines by A. Mylius, published in The copper plates from Regum Poloniae Icones were used in Polska kongars saga , published in by Johan Göstaf Hallman.
Author: Treter, Thomas Title: Regum Poloniae Icones Pulished: Rome: Thomas Treter, [i. Stockholm or Uppsala? Icones regumPoloniae served as a model for Principum et Regum Polonorum Imagines by A.
The figures are presented against a blue and olive background, en trois quarts , with their hands placed on the windowsill, holding gloves all except for Sophia, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
All family members, except for Sigismund I the Old and Catharine of Austria, who both appear as the first figure in each row, face left.
The portraits of Sigismund I the Old and his third daughter-in-law have the Cranach Workshop signatures placed differently, namely in the bottom left corner, while, in the other portrait miniatures the winged serpent is placed in the bottom right corner.
In general, kings could have been portrayed ad vivum even several times during their reigns. Still, it is believed that the portrait miniatures held by Czartoryski Museum were painted from images copied from earlier iconographic sources paintings or drawings , which had been sent to Wittenberg specifically for that purpose.
The symbolic representation of power and the royal iconography played an important role in the political program of the last Jagiellonians.
Their images were widely known at the European courts, thanks to paintings, portrait miniatures, medals, prints, and even bookbindings with their supralibros.
Art contributed significantly to showing the importance of the dynasty and influencing those to whom the portraits were sent.
An important feature of the royal iconography was to bring together the images of a family into a series of portraits and to make them available in public places to a broad audience.
Galleries of this type, presented in royal residences, town halls, and public buildings, have been known in European art since the Middle Ages, and it is in this context that the meaning of the Jagiellonian cycle should be interpreted.
Special attention should be paid to clothing and jewellery, depicted with utmost precision, reflecting personal preferences, tastes, the origin of the members of the family, and sometimes even manifesting their political attitude.
Author: Lucas Cranach the Younger and Workshop Object type: portrait miniatures of the Jagiellonian Family Created: Saxony? Bottom row, from left to right: Catherine of Austria , daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, third wife of Sigismund II Augustus m.
Each portrait miniature with copper nameplate placed in the centre of the bottom frame. Medium: mixed technique oil, tempera , on copper panel Bibliographic references: Molenda M.
Franciszek Stolot, Rainer Weiss, Schallaburg , no. Adolf Cichocki — bought in London in the 1st half of the 19th century; 3. Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria, younger brother of Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, John I Albert and Alexander I Jagiellon, next-to-last king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania In the portrait miniature that opens the series of Cranach portraits, Sigismund the Old has a wide face with a gray semi-circular beard.
He is wearing close-fitting caftan called sajan in Polish, partially visible from under his fur gown adorned with a large ermine collar, called szuba in Polish, which is optically widening his figure in the shoulders.
The dark garment contrasts with the white, strongly pleated shirt with the sleeves adorned with lace and the stand-up collar embroidered with a small pattern.
A low, pleated collar made of lace called kruszka in Polish surrounds his neck. Duchess of Bari and Rossano, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, legal heir to the Duchy of Milan, and Isabella of Naples, daughter of King Alfonso II of Naples.
Thanks to the efforts of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Bona married the widowed King Sigismund II Augustus and became Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania.
Mother of Sigismund II Augustus and four daughters: Isabella, Sophia, Anna, and Catherine. The portraits of Bona are scarce, especially those presenting her as a middle-aged woman.
The ones we have present her as a young beautiful girl or mature woman during her last years of marriage or widowhood.
Last male monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty, crowned as co-ruler alongside his father on February 20, , King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania , married three times, with Elisabeth of Austria m.
The portrayed king is wearing the so-called cuera — garment resembling cuirasses, with short sleeves and high collar, popularised in Europe thanks to the Spanish fashion.
Attention should be paid to a different way of depicting the face of Sigismund Augustus in comparison with the other members of the dynasty depicted by Cranach.
One is another portrait miniature, held by the National Museum in Krakow, showing Sigismund II wearing almost the same garment as in the Cranach work.
Similar facial features and painting elaboration can also be seen in a portrait from the collection of Archduke Ferdinand of Tirol in Ambras, presenting the King in armour as a rex armatus.
Thus, the artist from Wittenberg probably presented the actual appearance of Sigismund II Augustus, elegantly dressed not only following the then fashion at European courts but also according to his personal preferences.
The oldest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary, first wife of Sigismund II Augustus m. In the Cranach portrait miniature, she is depicted in almost the same way as in the painting by Master PF.
The portrait might have been sent to Poland on the occasion of her engagement to Sigismund II Augustus. In this case, we can therefore speak of an almost exact copy.
Elizabeth is wearing a red velvet dress trimmed at neck and with sleeves with gold embroidery. Puffy sleeves are decorated with three bands made of fabric with flower and ewer-shaped ornaments.
The sleeves are slashed, and the undershirt is pulled through. Part of her white chemise is also visible at the neckline, which is attached to a stand-up collar with golden bands.
She is wearing an openwork coif and a flat cap atop her hair. Some elements of their gowns are similar. The neckline, trimmed with a braid embroidered with pearls and gemstones, is attached to a stand-up collar with golden bands, and a white chemise made of delicate, pleated material is visible underneath.
The gloves that Barbara is holding have slashes on the fingers following the then German fashion. She is wearing a white veil or headscarf partially visible on the left side of her face over which a kind of built-up, richly decorated structure has been placed, almost entirely covered with gold, pearls, gemstones, and jewels.
There is a beret on it, with gold edging and rhombus embroidery. Daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna Jagellonica of Bohemia and Hungary, sister of Elizabeth of Austria first wife of Sigismund II Augustus , third wife of Sigismund II Augustus m.
In the Cranach portrait miniature, she is wearing a Southern-style dress, not seen before in the series. During her stay in Poland, Elizabeth favoured Italian fashion at first, and later, the Spanish style.
In the portrait held by Czartoryski Museum, she is depicted in a garment with Italian and German elements. The bodice of the black dress is decorated with oval patches.
She is wearing a necklace with a giant pearl, which she is holding in her hand. The second gem is attached to a stand-up collar, under which a fragment of a pleated collar made of lace is showing.
On her head, the Queen is wearing a golden bonnet and a beret with gold chains, jewels, and an enseigne sewn on. Polish and Lithuanian princess, Queen of Hungary, the oldest child of Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza.
Despite the similarity of both women, it is important to notice that Lucas Cranach managed to depict her individual traits accurately.
Apart from the necessity to wear a modest and black dress, it was forbidden to wear any jewellery for two years. Daughter of Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza, wife of Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel m.
In the three Cranach portrait miniatures, three Jagiellonian princesses, Sophia, Catherine and Anna, are depicted in the same artistic convention.
The sisters have their hair done and are dressed in gowns that follow fashion trends popular at the Polish and Habsbourg courts in the s. White cuffs of the golden chemises and thin pleated collars are showing from under their black gowns.
Their pulled back hair is covered in a sort of net made of bands sewn together, and atop their hair, they are wearing small hats embroidered with gemstones.
The top attention-grabbing elements of their clothes include calligraphic trimmings, dress spatches and jewellery.
The princesses are wearing heavy, exquisite necklaces and pendants. Each princess has two of them — one with her initials, second with a cross with a pearl.
Thanks to the pendants with their initials S for Sophia, C for Catherine, A for Anna , the sisters can be distinguished one from the other. Interestingly, the jewellery depicted in the Cranach portrait miniatures were the actual pieces, made of gold, diamond, rubies, and white enamel which were designed for Sophia, Catherine and Anna by Nicholas Nonarth ca from Wittenberg on special request of their father, Sigismund I the Old.
The only pendant that has survived to this day is the one own by Catherine — it was discovered in in her tomb in Uppsala.
Their pulled back hairis covered in a sort of net made of bands sewntogether, and atop their hair, they are wearing small hats embroidered with gemstones.
The top attention-grabbing elements of their clothesinclude calligraphictrimmings, dres spatches and jewellery.
Circular wax seal, lozengy background, diameter: 45 mm, edge almost wholly damaged. Armorial coat of arms, with late Gothic shield, parted quarterly, four coat of arms occupying the field of the escutcheon: of Poland crowned eagle , Lithuania armour-clad knight on horseback holding a spear, not a sword, and shield , Kalisz Land head of the aurochs with a ring in the nostrils against a checkerboard background , Kuyavia lands half-eagle and half-lion under one crown.
Bust of a winged angel atop the shield, with his hands put on the upper edge of the shield. It is a fair copy of financial records of the maintenance of the royal court and was created after the end of a specific reference period.
Bound in manuscript waste, with a fragment of a notarial act. Letter written by Casimir IV Jagiellon to Michael, Chancellor of Moldavia, in response to his previous letter, confirming its content which is unknown to us.
The letter is in Chancery Slavonic, i. Old Church Slavonic used in the chancery of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Interestingly, its palaeography resembles Old Ukrainian rather than Old Belarusian language.
It is a part of a larger collection comprising manuscripts written by Polish kings and other rulers from to e. I; Horodyski B. Coat of arms of Poland in the central field, closed crown above dividing two solid and pearled lines that run around the shield.
Central field with floral ornamental background, surrounded by nine coats of arms in the form of a wreath, leaning to each other.
At the very top of the seal, two coats of arm of Lithuania Pahonia, Vytis and of Austria white band originated from the arms of the Babenberg dynasty , leaning to each other, dividing the inscription around the border in two.
Floral ornamental background. Great Royal Seal was used on behalf of the king by the Grand Royal Chancellery. It used to be impressed in wax or wax mounted on paper on official state documents and privileges.
Object type: Great Royal Seal Owner: Sigismund I the Old Created: Physical description: coloured wax seal impression, leather cord, diameter of seal: 74 mm, of wax impression: ,5 mm Bibliographic references: Gumowski M.
The shield, supported by two kneeling angels, is parted quarterly, with coats of arms of Poland and Lithuania set in squares, with a closed crown above, and a small cross in the crest that divide the inscription running around the edge of the seal in two parts.
Ornamental background on the shield. Lesser Royal Seal was used on behalf of the king in the Lesser Royal Chancellery.
It used to be impressed in wax or wax mounted on paper on official state documents, and privileges. Its size was similar to the Great Royal Seal.
Object type: Lesser Royal Seal Owner: Sigismund I the Old Created: Physical description: coloured wax seal impression, silk cords, diameter of seal: 46 mm, of wax impression: 88 mm Bibliographic references: Gumowski M.
Obverse with a bust of Sigismund I the Old facing right. Sigismund is wearing a closed crown with a cross, and Renaissance armour, called Maximilian armour, with large pauldrons and epaulettes protecting both sides of the neck.
Producer: Giovanni Maria Mosca, called Padovano Object type: medal of Sigismund I the Old Created: Cracow? Przewodnik po wystawie, Warszawa , p.
Unique copy of a work describing last days and death of Sigismund I the Old, who died on April 1, , with a fine medallion portrait of the King.
The portrait also appeared in a funeral speech by Mathias Franconius, published probably at the same time. Its author, Jacob Filipowski from Opole identified with Opole Lubelskie in Lublin Voivodeship , attended the funeral ceremony in Cracow.
The book is dedicated to Bernard Maciejowski, Castellan of Radom. In the dedication, Filipowski emphasizes that Sigismund I the Old was not only an ideal ruler, but also a pious Christian, and his subjects should follow his example.
The authorship of the work is sometimes attributed to Giovanni Cini? Producer: anonymous Object type: medal of gratitude produced on the occasion of the birth of the prince and heir Sigismund II Augustus Production: Cracow, , restrike of a later date Physical description: cast circular blackened tin medal with pendant, diameter: 27,,8 mm, height with pendant: 32,8 mm, weight: 9,03 g Bibliographic references: Gumowski M.
Unique copy of a song written for the third wedding of Sigismund II Augustus in , one of the earliest examples of a polyphonic song published as a separate booklet.
Only three leaves of the original work have survived, probably the first part of the song, as the text focuses only on the circumstances of the wedding and on the reasons why Sigismund chose Catherine of Austria for his future wife.
The description of the wedding itself does not appear in the text. Although Sigismund II Augustus decided to wed Catherine sister of his first wife because of political reasons, the song presents his motifs in a different light, through royal ideology and Christian piety.
The text is accompanied by music notes, written for four voices. The same cantus firmus in the tenor voice was to emphasize the joyful nature of these two events.
Letter signed by Sigismund II Augustus, written in Vilnius in to Ludovicus Montius, Polish representative in Italy active in The letter, written in Italian, focuses on the question of money that was given to Montius for his service.
The letter is a part of a larger collection comprising letters to Montius by, e. Bona Sforza, Stanislaus Hosius, Philip Padniewski.
Turska, vol. Obverse with a bust of Sigismund II Augustus en face. Narrow edging, protruding parts of the obverse very much worn.
XX: 82; Skarby Historii Polski. Obverse with a bust of Sigismund II Augustus facing right. The King is presented with a small moustache and long forked beard, without any headwear, wearing Renaissance armour, with some of its elements breastplate, bevor with faulds, fragment of the pauldron clearly visible, shirt with a small ruff.
Reverse with a figure reminiscent of the coat of arms of Lithuania: charging armour-clad knight on horseback holding a sword, knight with a crested helm, in right profile.
Producer: Herwijck, Steven Cornelis van Hartwijck; ca Object type: medal of Sigismund II Augustus Production: Vilnius? Obverse with a bust of the Queen Bona Sforza facing right, wearing a widow dress with two collars, with the outer one stiff, and a Renaissance coif made of translucent material through which her hair can be seen.Stare Gry. Gefällt Mal. Zapraszamy na tandtfishingcharters.com Instagram: https://tandtfishingcharters.com INDEPENDENT ZIN. Lubię stare gry. Gefällt Mal. Fanpage kanału YouTube Ephe Gaming Team. Zrzeszamy fanów starych konsol, komputerów i gier:). Kiosk dla Stare pocztówki. Pocztówki od Pocztówki > Motywy > Zabawki / Wózki dzeciece > Zabawy / Gry Planszowe > Gry Karciane. Gry Karciane | Zabawy. Slot machine stare darmowe gry na pc. Msp Cheats Bet the Cassino & Slots on the net next to ☆ StarGames! ✓ NOVOMATIC-Original intrepids ✓ + Job. PrzygodoweRPGAkcjaRPG akcji. Akcja Casino Bliersheim Duisburg, StrzelankaFPSHorror. Embed Size px. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. W chowanego Wyznaczony uczestnik liczy np.